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APA Citation Guide

A brief guide to using the APA Citation Style, with links to further resources.

American Psychological Association 6th Edition

Need to use the 6th Edition? This page will cover some basic guidelines on citing in APA 6th Edition. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition for more sources and examples not covered on this page.

In-text Citations

See pp. 174-179 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition.

One author:    

Use the author's surname and date each time.

When Jones (2004) described this event...

One description of the event included several revolting details (Jones, 2004).

Two authors:   

Use both authors' names each time.

Gilbert and Smith (1999) concluded that ...

... reached an unacceptable conclusion (Gilbert & Smith, 1999).

Three, four, or five authors:    

Use all in the first citation. Subsequent citations use the first author et al.

Freeman, Meyer, and Ladd (2008) support these findings...

These finding are supported by other research (Freeman, Meyer, & Ladd, 2008).

Subsequent references:

Freeman et al. (2008) support these findings...

These finding are supported by other research (Freeman et al., 2008).

Six or more authors:    

List the first author followed by et al. each time.

Gunderson et al. (1976) reminds us....

...in past research (Gunderson et al., 1976).

Listing Authors in a Reference List

See pp. 181-184 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition.

One author:

Freeman, Y. S. & Freeman, D. E. (1996). Teaching, reading, and writing in Spanish in the bilingual classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Wills, G. (1994). Certain trumpets: The call of leaders. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Two authors:

Mayer, G., & McDonald, B. (2007). Encyclopedia of film. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Three to seven authors:

Smith, S., Ladd, R. E., & Pasquerella, L. (2008). Ethical issues in home health care. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Eight or more authors:

Jones, R., Fields, S. A., Lawrence, O., Florin, A., Herbst, K. D., Sillick, N. S., …Lloyd, B. (2009). Optimizing personal influence. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Note: When there are eight or more authors, list the first 6 as above, insert three ellipses (...), and the last author.

Journal Articles

See section 7.01 on pp. 198-202 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition.

General format for articles:

Author’s Last Name, Initial(s). (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note on capitalizing: In the article title only the first word of the title, first word of the subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized. In the journal title all words are capitalized except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions (except when it is the first word or the title).

Note on italicizing: Italicize the journal title and volume number. The article title and issue number are not italicized.

 

Sample Citations: 

Journal article with DOI:

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal article with more than seven authors:

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G.,... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days are more severe with stress, dependance, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305

Books

See section 7.02 on pp. 202-205 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition.

General format: 

Author, A. A. (Year). Book title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Note on capitalizing: Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, and proper nouns.

Note on italicizing: Italicize only the book title and subtitle.

 

Sample citations: 

Entire book, print version: 

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Entire book, electron version:

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from: http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp

Book chapter: 

Piaget, J. (1988). Extractions from Piaget's theory (G. Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Elbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp, 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed. 1970, New York, NY: Wiley)