Skip to Main Content

MLA Style Guide Ninth Edition



How to specify a work's location depends on the format of the work. For paginated print or similar fixed-format works (like PDFs) that are contained in another work (e.g., an essay in a print anthology or the PDF or an article in a journal), the location is the page range. 

For online works, the location, in order of preference, is the DOI, permalink, or URL. A DOI (digital object identifier) is an identifier permanently assigned to a source by the publisher. DOIs remain attached to their sources even if the URLs change, and DOIs are often more concise.

For physical media other than paginated print works, use the numbering system provided by the source (e.g., the location of the television episode in a DVD set may be indicated by the disc number). 


Print source

Copeland, Edward. "Money." The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.

Online work

Bockelman, Brian. "Buenos Aires Bohème: Argentina and Transatlantic Boehemian renaissance, 1890-1910." Modernism/Modernity, vol. 23, no. 1, Jan 2016,
          pp. 37-63. Project Muse, Https://


Television episode

"Hush." 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, episode 10, Mutant Enemy/Twentieth Century Fox, 2003,
          disc. 3. DVD


Physical locations and events

For a physical object or event that you experienced firsthand (not in a reproduction), such as a work of art in a museum, an artifact in an archive, a conference presentation, or a performance, give the name of the institution and a sufficient amount of information to identify where it is located—whether the city alone, city and state, or city and country.

Physical object

Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Knapp, David. Beneath the Smokestacks. 15 July-29 Nov. 2020, Springfield Museum of Art, Springfield, Ohio.

Performance, lecture or presentation

Bhatia, Rafiq. Concert. 10 Feb. 2018, Mass MOCA, North Adams.

Physical location

Other information may be used to identify materials held in a physical location—for example, a shelf mark (in the example below, Harley MS 7334). Such information should generally be recorded exactly as found.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. Circa 1400-10, British Library, London, Harley MS 7334.