See section 10.4 on pp. 329-331 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
There are many kinds of reports, including government reports, technical reports, and research reports. These reports, like journal articles, usually cover original research, but they may or may not be peer reviewed.
Follow the format used for books as closely as possible:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxxx). Publisher.
Very often there will be a corporate or agency as author:
Agency name. (year). Title of work. Publisher.
Report by a government agency or other organization:
National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf
Report by individual authors at a government agency or other organization:
Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/Democratic_Defense_Against_Disinformation_FINAL.pdf
See section 10.9 on pp. 337-338 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Pew Research Center. (2018). American trend panel Wave 26 [Data set]. https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/dataset/american-trends-panel-wave-26/
Unpublished Raw Data:
Baer, R. A. (2015). [Unpublished raw data on the correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills]. University of Kentucky. >
Note: For an untitled data set, provide a description in square brackets of the publication status and focus of the data.
Film or video:
Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoos nest [Film]. United Artists.
Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.
TV series episode or webisode:
Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.
YouTube video or other streaming video:
University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?=qm1xGfOZJc8
Single song or track
Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete Symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)
Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain
Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American Life. WBEZ Chicago. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusement-park
Speech audio recording
King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Note: Use these formats to cite (but not reproduce) the types of works below. To reproduce these, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference (see section 12.15).
Artwork in a museum or on a museum website:
Wood, G. (1930). American Gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565
Clip art or stock image
GDJ. (2018). Neutral network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart. https://openclipart.org/detail/309343/neutral-network-deep-learning-prismatic
Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival. https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2015/11/space-junk-infographic/
McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg
APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs-and they're making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumb-nail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/apaeduction/status/1012810490530140161
Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook http://bit.ly/2JQxPAD
Instagram photo or video
Zeit MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/
Online forum post
National Aeronautical and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/
Webpage on a news website:
Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html
Note: use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox). To cite articles from online magazines or newspapers, see Example 15 and 16 in section 10.1 on p. 320.
Webpage on a website with a group author:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm
See Chapter 11 on pp. 355-368 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for information on legal citations. The APA manual refers to The Bluebook for legal citations. This chapter does provide basic examples of legal citations.
For examples of legal references, see the sample references from Academic Writer.
For more help on legal citations, see the resources below.