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APA Citation Guide

A brief guide to using the APA Citation Style, with links to further resources.

Style Manual- 7th Edition

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See section 10.4 on pp. 329-331 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

There are many kinds of reports, including government reports, technical reports, and research reports. These reports, like journal articles, usually cover original research, but they may or may not be peer reviewed. 

Follow the format used for books as closely as possible:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxxx). Publisher.

Very often there will be a corporate or agency as author:

Agency name. (year). Title of work. Publisher.

Report by a government agency or other organization:

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health.

Report by individual authors at a government agency or other organization:

Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council.

Data Sets

See section 10.9 on pp. 337-338 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Data Set: 

Pew Research Center. (2018). American trend panel Wave 26 [Data set].

Unpublished Raw Data:

Baer, R. A. (2015). [Unpublished raw data on the correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills]. University of Kentucky. >

Note: For an untitled data set, provide a description in square brackets of the publication status and focus of the data.

Audiovisual Works

See section 10.12 on pp. 342-344 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Film or video:

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoos nest [Film]. United Artists.

TV series:

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO. 

TV series episode or webisode:

Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation. 

YouTube video or other streaming video: 

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video].  YouTube.

Audio Works

See section 10.13 on pp. 344-346 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Single song or track

Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete Symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)


Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

Podcast episode

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American Life. WBEZ Chicago.

Speech audio recording

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Visual Works

See section 10.14 on pp. 346-347 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Note: Use these formats to cite (but not reproduce) the types of works below. To reproduce these, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference (see section 12.15).

Artwork in a museum or on a museum website:

Wood, G. (1930). American Gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Clip art or stock image

GDJ. (2018). Neutral network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.


Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival.


McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Social Media

See section 10.15 on pp. 348-350 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association


APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs-and they're making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumb-nail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Facebook post

Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook

Instagram photo or video

Zeit MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram.

Online forum post

National Aeronautical and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post]. Reddit.


See section 10.16 on pp. 350-352 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Webpage on a news website:

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN.

Note: use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox). To cite articles from online magazines or newspapers, see Example 15 and 16 in section 10.1 on p. 320.

Webpage on a website with a group author:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications.

Legal References

See Chapter 11 on pp. 355-368 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for information on legal citations. The APA manual refers to The Bluebook for legal citations. This chapter does provide basic examples of legal citations.

For examples of legal references, see the sample references from Academic Writer.


For more help on legal citations, see the resources below.