There are many reasons to be curious about the way people learn, and the past several decades have seen an explosion of research that has important implications for individual learning, schooling, workforce training, and policy. In 2000, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition was published and its influence has been wide and deep. The report summarized insights on the nature of learning in school-aged children; described principles for the design of effective learning environments; and provided examples of how that could be implemented in the classroom. Since then, researchers have continued to investigate the nature of learning and have generated new findings related to the neurological processes involved in learning, individual and cultural variability related to learning, and educational technologies. In addition to expanding scientific understanding of the mechanisms of learning and how the brain adapts throughout the lifespan, there have been important discoveries about influences on learning, particularly sociocultural factors and the structure of learning environments. How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures provides a much-needed update incorporating insights gained from this research over the past decade. The book expands on the foundation laid out in the 2000 report and takes an in-depth look at the constellation of influences that affect individual learning. How People Learn II will become an indispensable resource to understand learning throughout the lifespan for educators of students and adults.
Chronicling the emergence of deeply embedded notions of black people as a dangerous race of criminals by explicit contrast to working-class whites and European immigrants, this book reveals the influence such ideas have had on urban development and social policies.
The first expert and comprehensive analysis of the surprising impact of body-worn cameras Following the tragic deaths of Eric Garner, Michael Brown, and others at the hands of police, interest in body-worn cameras for local, state, and federal law enforcement has skyrocketed. In Cops, Cameras, and Crisis, Michael D. White and Aili Malm provide an up-to-date analysis of this promising technology, evaluating whether it can address today's crisis in police legitimacy. Drawing on the latest research and insights from experts with field experience with police-worn body cameras, White and Malm show the benefits and drawbacks of this technology for police departments, police officers, and members of the public. Ultimately, they identify--and assess--each claim, weighing in on whether the specter of being "caught on tape" is capable of changing a criminal justice system desperately in need of reform. Cops, Cameras, and Crisis is a must-read for policymakers, police leaders, and activists interested in twenty-first-century policing.
This brief presents a study addressing the impact of a college degree upon officer use of force. The average American municipal police academy only requires 26 weeks of training, despite previous studies showing overwhelming support that college educated police officers apply more discretion in their use of force than officers without a college degree. Taking into account contemporary public/police conflicts and how American perceptions of police are based largely on officer use of force, this study offers a more current perspective on the profession's changing dynamic over the past decade. With data gathered from over 400 officers from 143 distinct municipal police agencies in 6 American states, the study examines the association between a college education and the level of force used to gain compliance during arrest situations, and notes discrepancies between previously studied factors and contextual variables. This brief will be useful for researchers of policing and for those involved with police training.
This insightful book examines the allegations against the professionalism, transparency, and integrity of law enforcement toward minority groups, from a global perspective. It addresses the challenges inherent in maintaining strong ties with members of the community, and draws attention to obstacles in ensuring public confidence and trust in rule of law institutions. Most importantly, the book provides insight into mechanisms and proposals for policy reform that would permit enhanced police-community partnership, collaboration and mutual respect. Acknowledging the consistency of this concern despite geographic location, ethnic diversity, and religious tolerance, this book considers controversial factors that have caused many groups and individuals to question their relationship with law enforcement. The book examines the context of police-community relations with contributed research from Nigeria, South Africa, Kosovo, Turkey, New Zealand, Mexico, Scandinavia and other North American and European viewpoints. It evaluates the roles that critical factors such as ethnicity, political instability, conflict, colonization, mental health, police practice, religion, critical criminology, socialism, and many other important aspects and concepts have played on perceptions of policing and rule of law. A valuable resource for law enforcement practitioners and researchers, policy makers, and students of criminal justice, Policing and Minority Communities: Contemporary Issues and Global Perspectives confronts crucial challenges and controversies in policing today with quantitative and qualitative research and practical policy recommendations.
This book highlights and examines the level, reach and consequences of corruption in international criminal justice systems. The book argues that corruption in and of criminal justice is an international problem regardless of the jurisdiction and type of political system - democratic, dictatorship or absolute monarchy. It argues that state power combined with the privatization of criminal justice and its policing, custodial institutions and community rehabilitation services is a vast industry within, and across, international jurisdictions that are worth substantial state fund. Criminal Justice and Corruption explains how different theoretical approaches highlight the problem of preventing corruption, discusses the problem of measuring criminal justice corruption, and focuses on individual criminal justice institutions. For each institution Brooks covers key literature and discusses the issues that they face, with a conclusion that reflects on the level and reach of corruption in criminal justice and whether it can maintain its legitimacy, particularly in democratic states.
This book is a study of the response that the police take to modern urban riots. It takes a principally police perspective on the lead-up to a riot, the police response, and the evaluation of the police response. The book is based on the development and analysis of four extensive case study riots: France 2005, London 2011, Ferguson 2014, and Baltimore 2015. The methodological approach to the case studies is comparative and includes an interactive framework that incorporates a number of key variables. These variables examine how each riot began, how they developed, the response strategies and tactics used by the police, and how the riots eventually ended. The first section looks at defining riots and examines the riot literature and research to date. The second section analyses the current police response to rioting. The third and final section includes an analysis and comparison of the case study riots, along with an examination of how the police response to riots could be improved. With its focus on police practices, this unique volume will be useful for researchers, students, police, law enforcement, and policy makers.
There is a dearth of OER textbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice, which made creating this textbook all the more exciting. At times we faced challenges about what or how much to cover, but our primary goal was to make sure this book was as in-depth as the two textbooks we were currently using for our CCJ 230 introduction course. The only way we were willing to undertake this project as if it was as good, or better than the current books students read. We have had very positive feedback about the required textbooks in the course but consistently heard how expensive the books were to buy. We also needed to ensure we met the learning outcomes outlined by SOU for a general education course, as well as the state of Oregon, to make sure this textbook helps students meet those outcomes.
This volume considers the ethics of policing and imprisonment, focusing particularly on mass incarceration and police shootings in the United States. The contributors consider the ways in which non-ideal features of the criminal justice system--features such as the prevalence of guns in America, political pressures, considerations of race and gender, and the lived experiences of people in jails and prisons--impinge upon conclusions drawn from more idealized models of punishment and law enforcement. There are a number of common themes running throughout the chapters. One is the contrast between idealism and realism about justice. Another is the attention to harmful consequences, not only of prisons themselves, but to the events that often precede incarceration, including encounters with police and pre-trial detention. A third theme is the legacy of racism in the United States and the role that the criminal justice system plays in perpetuating racial oppression.
There is a reason why people claim great respect for officers of the law: the job, by description, is hard--if not deadly. It takes a certain kind of person to accept the consequences of the job-- seeing the very worst situations, on a regular basis, and knowing that one's life is on the line every hour of every day. Working in law enforcement is emotionally and psychologically draining. It affects these public servants both on and off the job. Said plainly, shaking an officers' hand when you see them or posting a sign in the front yard that reads "Support the Badge" is lip service. Even going as far as to donate money to a crowdsourcing fundraising site does little to support the long-term professional development needs of officers. These are surface level signs of solidarity, and do little in terms of showing respect for the job and those who do it. For those who want to do more, this text provides reasons and a rationale for doing better by these public servants. Showing respect does not mean that one agrees with whatever another person or institution claims to be the "right" way. Showing respect and admiration means that we charge individuals to live up to their fullest potentials and integrate innovation wherever possible. In the case of policing in the era of Black Lives Matters, policing as usual simply is not an option any longer. It is disrespectful, to both the officers and those who are being policed, to rest on the laurels of past policing tactics. As we enter a time period in which police interactions are recorded (dash cams or body cams, for example) and new populations are being targeted (Latinx people), there is much to learn about what is working and what is not.
In 2014, a white police officer in Ferguson, Missouri, shot and killed Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager. This incident, along with similar ones in Cleveland, Chicago, and other cities in the months that followed, sparked a wave of protest nationwide targeting racial disparities in criminal justice and accusing the police of using excessive force against African Americans. Are these accusations valid? Is policing racially biased? Or is it focused on stopping crime wherever it poses a threat?
Americans struggle with the issues of policing, race, and violence. In this video, "Nightline" brings together a diverse group of parents, children, and officers to have frank conversations about race, justice, and the role of police.
Crime rates of previous decades continue to have a large impact on how the criminal justice system functions today. Proactive policing strategies such as "drug-free zone" laws and "stop-and frisk" were implemented with the best of intentions, but critics say they are not working, and are in fact causing more hardship - for the community and the state's taxpayers - filling up prisons and infringing on civil rights. What can be done to repair the public's trust in the system? Are proactive policing strategies like "stop-and-frisk" working? The System looks at how where you live can determine your fate with the police.
From minor infractions to identity theft and murder, this program sorts out categories of crimes and their severity, and lets viewers know what takes place during an arrest and arraignment. With input from prosecutors, police officers, and other experts, the video also discusses some fairly common scenarios and their constitutional parameters. Can a student's locker be searched without permission? When is evidence found without a warrant admissible in court? Should a suspect—even one who is innocent—"plead the Fifth" if arrested?
An annual publication for more than eight decades, the Crime in the United States report contains a compilation of the volume and rate of violent and property crime offenses for the nation and by state using Summary Reporting System data and summarized data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Data at the level of local law enforcement agencies are also provided for those contributors supplying 12 months of complete offense data. This report includes arrests, clearances, trends, and law enforcement employee data.
The Crime Analysis Unit provides various analytical and computational services to the Connecticut State Police, the Connecticut Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection, Connecticut municipal police departments, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the media, and other consumers of Connecticut crime and traffic statistics. The Crime Analysis Unit oversees several state-mandated programs, including the Connecticut Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, the National Incident-Based Reporting Program (NIBRS), the Connecticut Family Violence Reporting Program, and the Connecticut Bias (Hate) Crime Reporting Program. In addition to these mandated programs, the Crime Analysis Unit maintains statistical and summary data on motor vehicle enforcements, accidents, and related traffic events handled by the Connecticut State Police.