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Graphic Novels, Comics, and Manga

This guide was originally created for students of English 218 studying Comics and the Graphics Novel in Professor Baraw's American Experience and Literature Course at Southern Connecticut State University.

What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism occurs when you use someone else's ideas without giving them due credit. You can use other people's ideas provided you acknowledge where you got your information. Click on the pdf icon to understand what plagiarism is and how to avoid it.

How Can I Tell if I'm Plagiarizing?

How to Identify Written Plagiarism

Citing Graphic Novels

It is important to cite information that you use correctly in order to let the reader know the validity of your resources and the credibility of your arguments, as well as to avoid plagiarism. Here are examples for citing graphic novels taken from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 9th edition.


Graphic novel by one person
A citation for a graphic novel created by one person is formatted the same as any other non-periodical print publication.
Please remember to indent if the citation runs beyond the first line.

Spiegelman, Art. Maus: A Survivor's Tale. 2 vols. New York: Pantheon-Random, 1986-91. 

Clowes, Daniel. David Boring. Eightball, no. 19 Fantagraphics, 1998.


Graphic novel by more than one person 
For a collaborative work, begin with the name of the person whose contribution is most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person's role. Other collaborators are listed after the title in the order in which they appear on the title page, also with labels identifying their roles.

Superman: Birthright. By Marc Waid, illustrated by Leinil Francis You, inked by Gerry Alanguilan, colored by Dave McCaig, DC Comics, 2005.

Benoit, Ted, adapt. Playback: A Graphic Novel. By Raymond Chandler, illustrated by Francois Ayroles, introduction Philippe Garnier,
         Arcade, 2006. 

Pekar, Harvey, writer. The Quitter. Art by Dean Haspiel,  gray tones by Lee Loughridge, letters by Pat Brosseau,
         Vertigo-DC Comics, 2005. 


Multivolume work
If the graphic narrative is part of a multivolume work, you may add information about the series following the medium of publication. 

Yabuki, Kentaro, writer and artist. Showdown at the Old Castle. English adaptation by Kelly Sue DeConnickt, translation JN Productions,
         touch-up art and lettering by Gia Cam Luc, Viz, 2007.  Vol. 9 of Black Cat.